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CYPHOS® IL 101 For Extraction of Metals

Ga, Co, Mn, In, Zn, Au and more

Welcome back for part two of our blog on CYPHOS® IL 101. The focus of this review is on the use of CYPHOS® IL 101 for extraction of additional metals not mentioned in part 1. It should be mentioned here that in most of the studies CYPHOS® IL 101 was supplied by Cytec/Solvay and was used as received. However, in several instances supplied CYPHOS® IL 101 was additionally purified and/or was prepared by the authors. In those cases, instead of the trade name CYPHOS® IL 101 we will be using the name as appeared in the publication (i.e. trihexyltetradecylphosphonium chloride or [THTDP]Cl or [P6,6,6,14][Cl]).


Extraction of Ga

Gallium is known to be “the backbone of the electronics industry” [2]. A recent study [3] described extraction of gallium (III) from acidic chloride medium with CYPHOS® IL 101 diluted with kerosene. Gallium was effectively extracted and separated from the photodiode with little co-extraction of copper. The authors concluded that CYPHOS® IL 101 was a better extractant compared to classical extractants.

Extraction of Co and Mn

It was recently demonstrated that CYPHOS® IL 101 can be used to extract cobalt and manganese from nickel laterite leach solutions containing chloride in a range of 80–100 g/L. CYPHOS® IL 101 had advantages over Aliquat® 336 and Alamine® 336 due to its higher extraction of cobalt and manganese [4].

Extraction of In and Zn

Indium(III) was selectively extracted with minimum co-extraction of zinc(II) using CYPHOS® IL 101 from ethylene glycol solutions, whereas the extraction was inefficient from aqueous chloride solutions [5]. Extraction of indium from waste liquid crystal displays using CYPHOS® IL 101 was investigated with various extraction parameters [6].

Extraction of Au

CYPHOS® IL 101 was studied for non-dispersive extraction of gold(III) [7] as well as for the first time for the selective recovery of gold from thiosulfate leachate of sulfidic gold ore [8]. In the latter, different solvents were used to dilute CYPHOS® IL 101, and toluene was found to be the best choice. Overall, the study showed attractive results.

Extraction of metals from spent batteries

Recently, CYPHOS® IL 101 was effectively used for extracting cobalt and lithium from spent lithium-ion battery leach liquors. Thus, 90.5% of Co and 86.2% of Li were recovered in the forms of cobalt oxalate and lithium carbonate with the purity 87.4% and 74.2%. It was concluded that the use of CYPHOS® IL 101 “might provide a promising strategy for recycling spent lithium cobalt oxide batteries” [9].

A number of approaches were recently studied towards solid–liquid-liquid extraction of heavy metals from the ‘‘black mass” (BM) from spent Ni-Cd batteries. The IL, [P6,6,6,14][Cl] proposed for the extraction of nickel(II) from the aqueous phase after the extraction with DES 1 from the BM showed an effective Ni/Cd separation [10].


  1.  Extraction of Three Targeted Metals.
  2.  Miner. Eng. 2003, 16, 921–929.
  3.  Turk. J. Chem. 2017, 41, 6, 892-903.
  4.  Hydrometallurgy 2017, 169, 213-218.
  5.  RSC Advances 2020, 10 (41), 24595-24612.
  6.  Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China 2020, 30 (9), 2556-2567.
  7.  Sep. Purif. Technol. 2017, 179, 72–76.
  8.  Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2022, 61 (16), 5612-5619.
  9.  Hydrometallurgy 2020, 197, 105439.
  10.  J. Mol. Liq. 2022, 357, 119087.


To learn more about other Solvay specialty phosphorus products, please refer to the Strem Catalog.

Featured Product:

15-6382 Trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium chloride, min. 95% CYPHOS IL 101 (258864-54-9)


Related Products:

All products sold in collaboration with Solvay

Phosphorus Ligands and Compounds Booklet




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