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'Product Blog'

Quantum Dots Proliferating in Displays

Less than a decade ago, only four companies featured QD enhanced LCD TVs at the Consumer Electronics Show: Samsung, TCL, Hisense and LG,(1) although Sony had been first to demonstrate the technology in 2013 with their TRILUMINOS display.(2) Initially the QDs were found in high end models with large screen sizes and  premium price points (justified by their brighter displays and wider color gamuts than competing technologies). Over the last few years the costs of QD displays have decreased thanks to technical improvements such as lowering the quantity of QDs required per m2 of display and improving the stability of the QDs which means less costly barrier films, or in some cases none at all, are required to protect them in the display.(3) A search for quantum dot TVs on the Best Buy website today found 106 items ranging in size from 32” to 86” and in price from US$379.99 to US$4,149.98, QDs have truly become an ubiquitous technology for TV displays. They are also highly recommended versus alternative technologies, see for example


Phosphines in Quantum Dot Manufacturing

Quantum dots are generally made by combining the semiconductor precursors and surfactants together at high temperatures in specialized solvents. Phosphine derivatives are utilized as precursors (primarily for indium phosphide QDs), ligands and solvents in the process.


CYTOP® 250 (Strem Catalog 97-1003) (tris(trimethylsilyl)phosphine) was developed as a high purity source of phosphorus for the synthesis of cadmium-free quantum dots.(4) It is also available as a solution in tri-n-octylphosphine.

CYTOP® 186TOP (a solution of diphenylphosphine in tri-n-octylphosphine), CYTOP® 504 (Strem Catalog 97-6659) (a blend of tri-n-octylphosphine selenide and tri-n-octylphosphine) and CYTOP® 505 (Strem Catalog 15-7550)  (tri-n-octylphosphine sulfide) are vital reagents for the delivery of chalcogens into the nanocrystals of QDs such as lead selenide, cadmium selenide, InP/ZnSeS/ZnS, InGaP/ZnSeS/ZnS and cadmium sulfide.(5-9)

CYTOP® 502 (Strem Catalog 97-6660) (tri-n-octylphosphine oxide) is used as a high boiling solvent and passivating ligand in the manufacture of quantum dots by both batch and continuous processes.(10)

CYTOP® 380HP (Strem Catalog 97-6655), a high purity version of tri-n-octylphosphine developed specifically for QD manufacturing, is widely used as a solvent of choice and capping / passivating ligand.(10,11)

The phosphine derivatives mentioned in this blog are currently available at pilot to industrial scale.

To learn more about other specialty phosphorus products, please refer to the Solvay offering at Strem or the Solvay website.



  1. IEEE Spectrum: Technology, Engineering, and Science News. 7 January 2015.
  4. Chem. Mater. 2013, 25, 2463-2469.
  5. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2010, 132, 10973-10975.
  6. Chem. Int. Ed. 2013, 52, 4823-4828.
  7. Chem. Mater. 2016, 28, 618-625.
  8. Chem. Mater. 2020, 32, 3537-3544.
  9. Chem. Mater. 2020, 32, 1430-1438.
  10. Phys.Chem.Chem.Phys. 2015, 17, 18882-18894.
  11. Chem. Rev. 2010, 110, 389-458.


Featured Products:

97-6660 Trioctylphosphine oxide, min. 90% TOPO [CYTOP® 502] (78-50-2)

97-6655 Tri-n-octylphosphine, min. 97% TOP [CYTOP® 380HP ORGANOPHOSPHINE] (4731-53-7)

97-1003 Tris(trimethylsilyl)phosphine, min. 98% [CYTOP® 250 ORGANOPHOSPHINE] (15573-38-3)

15-7550 Trioctylphosphine sulfide, CYTOP® 505 (2551-53-3)

97-6659 Trioctylphosphine selenide min. 80% [CYTOP® 504] (20612-73-1)

CYTOP® 186 Please Inquire


Related Products:

All products sold in collaboration with Solvay

Phosphorus Ligands and Compounds Booklet



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